The grunts are between 165 to 320 msec long with most energy between 80 and 140 Hz. Minke whales begin exhaling before they reach the surface, which minimizes the blow. These sounds have been attributed to minke whales, though there is some uncertainty. Minke whales are identified by a narrow, pointed rostrum (snout) and black or dark gray coloring on the back with gray shading extending up each side in front of and below the dorsal fin. Determine if a sound affects a marine animal, Potential effects of sound on marine mammals, Potential effects of sound on marine fishes, Acoustic Issues Related to Diadromous Fishes, Measure marine mammal’s reaction to sound, Moderate or eliminate the effects of human activities, Blast Injury, Barotrauma, and Acoustic Trauma. How is sound used to help make long-term measurements of the ocean? However, by the early 1970s, following the overhunting of larger whales such as the sei, fin, and blue whales, minkes became a more attractive target of whalers. , Antarctic minke whales are diurnal feeders. However, in recent years, researchers have determined that enough scientific How is sound used to estimate marine mammal abundance? In the northern Great Barrier Reef (Australia), a swim-with-whales tourism industry has developed based on the June and July migration of dwarf minke whales. The minke whale is the smallest baleen whale in North American waters. At rest, minke whales spout (breathe) about 5–6 times per minute. This, combined with the fact that minkes can stay submerged for as long as 20 minutes, has led some whale-watchers to label them 'stinky minkes'.. What the sounds mean in whale-speak remains a mystery to scientists. How does sea ice affect how sound travels? By the end of the 1930s, they were the target of coastal whaling by Brazil, Canada, China, Greenland, Japan, Korea, Norway, and South Africa. NOAA, Northeast Fisheries Science Center: Risch, D, Clark, C., Dugan, P., Popescu, M., Siebert, U., & Van Parijs, S. (2013). How does shipping affect ocean sound levels? , As of 2018, the IUCN Red List labels the common minke whale as Least Concern and the Antarctic minke whale as Near Threatened.. The Minke whale is the second smallest of the baleen category. Vocalizations Associated with Reproduction. How does sound in air differ from sound in water? How is acoustics used to monitor Arctic marine mammals? A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources.  Most minke whales observed in 2002 (90.4%) fed solely on one prey species. Minke whales, like all baleen whales, lack the system of air sacs and sound-generating ‘phonic lips’ in the forehead region above the skull, that are found in toothed whales, such as dolphins. At 7 – 10 meters (23- 33 feet) the Minke whale (pronounced mink-ee) is the smallest of the Mysticetes or “baleen whales.” As such they are also the smallest of the Rorquals – which include (from ‘small’ to large) the Bryde’s, Sei, Fin, and Blue whale (the largest of any vertebrates to live on the planet). How do people and animals use sound in the sea? Other rorquals are e.g. Minke definition, a dark-colored baleen whale, Baleanoptera acutorostrata, inhabiting temperate and polar seas and growing to a length of 33 feet (10 meters): reduced in numbers. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. How is sound used to measure water depth?  In addition, at least two wild hybrids between a common minke whale and an Antarctic minke whale have been confirmed.. In the San Juan Islands, although up to six whales could be seen in a feeding area at once they usually acted independently, with no indications of cooperative feeding like that observed in their larger relatives the humpback and fin whale. This raised concerns that some whales were being caught deliberately. Why is sound important to marine animals? Until the late 1990s, only one species of minke whale was believed to exist, the common minke whale. How is sound used to protect marine mammals? How is sound used to study marine mammal distribution? Common minke whales have a white band on both pectoral flippers.  Stable isotope analysis from 2003 shows minke whales in the north Atlantic also feed on prey from lower trophic levels as well. They are also one of the most commonly sighted whales seen on whale-watches from New England and eastern Canada. , On at least one occasion, an Antarctic minke whale has been confirmed migrating to the Arctic. The sound of a the minke whale has been recorded for the first time off Scotland’s coast. Mysterious bio-duck sound attributed to the Antarctic minke whale (, Risch, Denise, Van Parijs, S. M., & Siebert, U. How is sound used to communicate underwater? The maximum swimming speed of minkes has been estimated at 38 km/h (24 mph). The stated purpose of the research is to establish data to support a case for the resumption of sustainable commercial whaling. How is sound used to measure rainfall over the ocean? Japan continued catching whales under the special research permit clause in the IWC convention, though in significantly smaller numbers. In the 19th century, they were considered too small to chase, and received their name from a young Norwegian whale-spotter in the crew of Svend Foyn, who harpooned one, mistaking it for a blue whale and was derided for it.. Minke whales typically live for 30–50 years; in some cases they may live for up to 60 years. There are two species of minke whales: minke whales, aka common or northern minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Lacépède, 1804, acutorostrata means ‘sharp snouted’) and Antarctic or southern minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis(Burmeister, 1867). Minke Whale Range Species Fact: The scientific name for the minke whales translate to: "winged whale" (Balaenoptera), "sharp snout" (acutorostrata). The presence of the bacteria suggests minke whales rely on microbial digestion to extract nutrients provided by their food. Minke whale acoustic behavior and multi-year seasonal and diel vocalization patterns in Massachusetts Bay, USA. , The gestation period for minke whales is 10 months, and calves measure 2.4 to 2.8 m (7.9 to 9.2 ft) at birth. How is sound used to study underwater volcanoes? The SOFAR Channel. Both species undertake seasonal migration routes to the poles during spring and towards the tropics during fall and winter. Blue whale song (MP3 - 333.71 KB) Fin whale song (MP3 - 269.02 KB) Humpback whale song (MP3 - 275.77 KB) Dwark minke whale song (MP3 - 188.03 KB) Note: Both the blue whale and fin whale songs are five times their normal speed. How is sound used to monitor nuclear testing? Webinar Archive: Fundamentals of Underwater Sound, Webinar Archive: NMFS Regulatory Approach, Webinar Archive: An International Comparison, 2019 Webinar Series Archive: Anthropogenic Sound Sources, Webinar Archive: Pile Driving and Wind Turbines, Webinar Archive: Commercial Vessel Traffic, Webinar Archive: Sonar, Echosounders & Military Sonar, Webinar Archive: Sound Reception in Marine Mammals, Webinar Archive: Potential Effects of Sound on Marine Mammals, Webinar Archive: Sound Production and Reception in Teleost Fishes, Webinar Archive: Potential Effects of Sound on Marine Fishes, Webinar Archive: Marine Animal Sound Production and Reception, Webinar Archive: Potential Effects of Sound on Fishes, DOSITS Webinar Testing and Troubleshooting Tips, Decision Makers Effects of Sound Tutorial Introduction, Determine if a Sound Affects a Marine Animal Tutorial Introduction, Tutorial: Sound Levels at Distance and Depth. Their sleek, dark bodies parade black, dark brown and grey tones with a lighter belly that flashes through the water. Common minke whales found in the North Atlantic produce repetitive, low-frequency (100-500 Hz) pulse trains that may consist of either grunt-like pulses or thump-like pulses. How is sound used to study the Earth’s history? NatureServe lists them as G5 which means the species is secure on global range . In the Pacific, the long-mysterious “boing” heard by acousticians has been identified as produced by common minke whales (Rankin and Barlow, 2005). "Whole genome resequencing reveals diagnostic markers for investigating global migration and hybridization between minke whale species", "Cetacean mitochondrial DNA control region: sequences of all extant baleen whales and two sperm whale species", "Antarctic minke whales migrate to the Arctic", "Migration of Antarctic Minke Whales to the Arctic", "Hybrids between common and Antarctic minke whales are fertile and can back-cross", "The auditory anatomy of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): a potential fatty sound reception pathway in a baleen whale", https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015197, "Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)", "The nature of the interrelationships between killer whales and other cetaceans", "DIET AND FOOD AVAILABILITY FOR NORTHEAST ATLANTIC MINKE WHALES BALAENOPTERA ACUTOROSTRATA", "Geographical and seasonal changes of the prey species of minke whale in the Northwestern Pacific", "Prey composition and consumption rate by Antarctic minke whales based on JARPA and JARPAII data", "Japanese whale hunters kill 122 pregnant minke", "High value of whale meat costs minkes in Korea", "Japan's first commercial whale catch in 31 years". In minke whales, the sounds probably come from the larynx, although none of the baleen whales have vocal cords. Hunting continued apace until the general moratorium on whaling began in 1986.  In Scotland, sand eels are the most commonly observed prey species, followed by herring and sprat. , Whaling was mentioned in Norwegian written sources as early as the year 800, and hunting minke whales with harpoons was common in the 11th century. "Modes of Production and Minke Whaling: The Case of Iceland", Voices in the Sea - Sounds of the Minke Whale, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Minke_whale&oldid=991959243, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 18:52. Science Tutorial: How are sounds viewed and analyzed? How is sound used to transmit data underwater? They aren’t likely to be more than 35 feet long or to weigh more than 5.5 tons. The 2004 estimate yielded 515,000 individuals for the Antarctic minke stock. (2014).  In August 2003, Iceland announced it would start research catches to estimate whether the stocks around the island could sustain hunting. In the North Atlantic conception takes place from December to May with a peak month of February with birth taking place from October to March with a peak in December. Lastly, the Antarctic minke whale produces a unique vocalization called the “bio-duck” sound. The junior synonyms for B. acutorostrata are B. davidsoni (Scammon 1872), B. minimia (Rapp, 1837) and B. rostrata (Fabricius, 1780). Scroll below for some fun underwater sounds. Both sexes typically weigh 4–5 t (3.9–4.9 long tons; 4.4–5.5 short tons) at sexual maturity, and the maximum weight may be as much as 10 t (9.8 long tons; 11 short tons). They are part of the largest group of baleen whales called the rorquals (Family Balaenopteridae, the family that includes: blue whales, Bryde’s whales, fin whales, h… How is sound used to measure temperature in the ocean? , The brains of minke whales have around 12.8 billion neocortical neurons and 98.2 billion neocortical glia.. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. Upon reaching sexual maturity (6–8 years of age), males measure an average of 6.9 m (23 ft) and females 8 m (26 ft) in length, respectively. How does sound travel in very shallow waters? Risch, D., Gales, N. J., Gedamke, J., Kindermann, L., Nowacek, D. P., Read, A. J., … Friedlaender, A. S. (2014). See more.  In 1804, Bernard Germain de Lacépède described a juvenile specimen of Balaenoptera acuto-rostrata. They feature two blowholes and they are black and white in color. Look out, it's Stinky Minke - there she blows! Minke whales are very difficult to see in the ocean because they have a low or nonexistent blow or spout when they surface, they surface for a very brief amount of time, and they are usually found alone. Minke Whales have earned the name “Stinky Minkes” because of the less-than-appealing smell of their spouting. A limited number of reef tourism operators (based in Port Douglas and Cairns) have been granted permits by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority to conduct these swims, given strict adherence to a code of practice, and that operators report details of all sightings as part of a monitoring program. Their sleek, dark bodies parade black, dark brown and grey tones with a lighter belly that flashes through the water. It looks like the lyre bird and its futuristic laser sounds might finally have a challenger: the dwarf minke whale. It consists of a brief pulse at 1.3 kHz, followed by a call at 1.4 kHz that changes frequency slightly over its 2.5 sec duration. The 2006 catch by Japanese whalers included 505 Antarctic minke whales. Science Tutorial: Sound Pressure Levels and Sound Exposure Levels, Decision Makers Sound Source Tutorial Introduction, WOTAN: “Wind Observations Through Ambient Noise”, Archival Marine Acoustic Recording Units (ARUs). How is sound used to study undersea earthquakes? Sound Pressure Levels and Sound Exposure Levels, Ocean Noise Variability and Noise Budgets, Propagation from a sound source array in the near field and far field. How is sound used to measure wind over the ocean? The newborns nurse for five to 10 months. : Unknown fish downsweeps: In addition to using vocal communication minke whales are also known to breach the water and lobtail. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15197. The two species of minke whale are the common (or northern) minke whale and the Antarctic (or southern) minke whale. What components of sound are used for hearing?  This minke whale population mainly feeds on Antarctic krill in offshore areas and ice krill in coastal areas on the continental shelf such as the Ross sea and Prydz bay. Minke whales appear to have distinctly different songs in each geographic region. , As with most Mysticetes, the auditory system for the minke whale is not well understood. Other characteristics include two flippers that are very long, a dorsal fin that is small, and ridges around the back close to the tail. The dwarf subspecies of the common minke whale can also be distinguished from the Antarctic minke whale because it is much smaller. Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)Group formation: Solitary Size: males 6-8 m, females 7-9 m, calf 2.5 m Weight: males 4 t, females 5 (10) t, calf 400 kg Spout: 2 m, hard to see Age: 50-60 yrs Sexual maturity: 6-8 yrs Physical maturity: 18-20 yrs Gestation: 10 mths, every 2 years Weaning: 5-10 months Diet: Krill in the northern areas, but also herring or capelin Population estimates are generated by the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission. Previous calculations of source levels for minke whale vocalizations were in the range of 160–165 dB re 1 μPa [13,14]. This mysterious, “quacking-like” sound had been recorded in the Southern Ocean for decades, but its source was unknown until 2013. Minke whales are mostly solitary animals often traveling alone or in small podsof 2 – 3 whales. Minke whales can be hard to research; they are fast, observed swimming at speeds of 30 km/h, and their surfacing can been sporadic and hard to follow. Minke whales have between 240 and 360 baleen plates on each side of their mouths. The vocalization is repeated at very consistent intervals that can vary from 1-2 seconds to 3-4 minutes. As their name suggests, Antarctic minke whales live mainly in Antarctica! Only once were three indi… The minke whales are the second smallest baleen whale; only the pygmy right whale is smaller.  A study in 1975 found that in 49 killer whale stomachs, 84% had consumed minke whale. Thump trains near Martinique, West Indies, January 2000. Many baleen whale populations have been reduced extensively by whaling, which makes them more vulnerable to negative impacts from changes in their habitats (Baker and Clapham, 2004). Normally sounds from these whales are too low for humans to hear. The minke whale is the second smallest of the baleen whale, and in the north Pacific has been largely under-studied due to its elusive nature. Photo courtesy of Tom Jefferson. IV. The highly repetitive sound consists of a regular series of downswept pulses, ranging from 50-300 Hz, with an interval of 3.1 between the start of two series. Minke whales have a digestive system composed of four compartments with a high density of anaerobic bacteria throughout. J stock whales' primary prey type is Japanese anchovy during May and June, Pacific saury in July and August, and krill in September.  The minke whale was first described by the Danish naturalist Otto Fabricius in 1780, who assumed it must be an already known species and assigned his specimen to Balaena rostrata, a name given to the northern bottlenose whale by Otto Friedrich Müller in 1776. These sounds are used to communicatevarious needs, wants and dangers to other whales within the area. So, the krill and fish are caught by bristles on the baleen and swallowed, while the seawater washes through and goes back into the ocean. It spans a wide frequency range from 50 Hz to 9.4 kHz and is composed of distinct and repeated components. Minke whales were not then regularly hunted by the large-scale whaling operations in the Southern Ocean because of their relatively small size. The permitted catch for the initial season (July 1 - December 31, 2019) is 227 whales, of which 52 can be minke. How is sound used to identify ecological hotspots?  The quota for 2011 was set at 1286. Passive Acoustic Monitoring Reveals Clues to Minke Whale Calling Behavior and Movements in the Gulf of Maine, https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539X-00003187. How is sound used to research wind energy? Peak birth time occurs from July to August. How will ocean acidification affect ocean sound levels? Marine mammal researchers at the Scottish Association …  Minke whale carcasses investigated after attacks show that killer whales have an affinity for minke tongues and lower jaw. Many specifics about migration in this species still remain unclear. They have very pronounced accents based on where they are in the world. Discovery of Sounds in the Sea: Minke Whale Sounds; Documents. Difference between the timing of the seasons may prevent the two closely related species from mixing. The songs are produced only in winter, which is thought to be the breeding season. There is one synonym for B. bonaerensis - B. huttoni (Gray 1874). (2010) Migration of Antarctic Minke Whales to the Arctic. How is sound used to navigate underwater? Tutorial: Can Animals Sense These Sounds Part I, Tutorial: Can Animals Sense These Sounds Part II, Decision Makers Science of Sound Tutorial Introduction. Common minke whales are normally seen singly. The minke whale /ˈmɪnki/, or lesser rorqual, is a species complex of baleen whale. The minke whale is a black/gray/purple color. The common minke whale is the smallest of all baleen whales, reaching around 8 to 9 metres long. The large form of the common minke whale is found in the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. Minke whale - Balaenoptera acutorostrata The minke whale is a medium-sized whale, sleek in shape, with a very pointed head.It is dark grey to black in colour with a white underside and has white patches behind the head and a distinctive bright white band on the outer part of the pectoral flippers. Three years later, in 2006, Iceland resumed commercial whaling. Mysterious sounds were thought to … The thumps are between 100 and 200 Hz, lasting 50-70 msec. Minke whales also produce non-song sounds. Following the moratorium, most hunting of minke whales ceased. The Minke Whale Project is supported by many organisations and lots of wonderful people. Where do Antarctic minke whales live? Listen to whale songs. Most of the length of the back, including dorsal fin and blowholes, appears at once when the whale surfaces to breathe. They make very loud sounds, up to 152 decibels (as loud as a jet taking off). How is sound used to measure the upper ocean? The anti-predatory mechanism of the minke whale is strictly a flight response, as when this fails no physical retaliation is observed. Reported maximum lengths vary from 9.1 to 10.7 m (30 to 35 ft) for females and 8.8 to 9.8 m (29 to 32 ft) for males. All minke whales are part of the rorquals, a family that includes the humpback whale, the fin whale, the Bryde's whale, the sei whale and the blue whale. Breeding peaks during the summer months.  A long-term photo identification study on the British Columbian and Washington coasts showed that some individuals travel as far as 424 km north in the spring, and 398 km south to warmer waters in the autumn. How is active acoustics used in fisheries research and management? Underwater sounds Whales Antarctic blue whale: NE Pacific blue whale: NE Pacific Bryde's whale: Humpback whale: Pacific minke whale boing: Atlantic minke whale pulse train: Fish Bocaccio: Nassau grouper: Redhind grouper: "Jetski" - Atlantic midshipman? By 1979, the minke was the only whale caught by Southern Ocean fleets. Environmental organizations and several governments contend that research whaling is simply a cover for commercial whaling.  Before 1993, minke whales in the north Barents Sea fed predominantly on capelin until stocks collapsed and the whales switched to krill as their primary prey type. Tutorial: How can we moderate or eliminate the effects of human activities? In the case of minke whales, several populations are still being impacted by ongoing commercial whaling. Most modern classifications split the minke whale into two species; Taxonomists further categorize the common minke whale into two or three subspecies; the North Atlantic minke whale, the North Pacific minke whale and dwarf minke whale. However, magnetic resonance imaging points to evidence that the minke whale has fat deposits in their jaws intended for sound reception, much like Odontocetes. The body is usually black or dark-gray above and white underneath. How is sound used to measure waves in the surf zone? Size: 7-10 m ( ft) Weight: 5-7 tonnes Diet: Mostly small schooling fish such as sandeels and capelin, but also krill and opportunistically other small schooling fish species The minke whale is a baleen whale that belongs to the rorqual family and is its smallest member. Hearing in Cetaceans and Sirenians, the Fully Aquatic Ear. The researchers don't know for sure whether the tagged whales or other nearby minke whales made the sounds.  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